The very expression “thinking outside the box” suggests that people get caught up in narrow minded boxes and can’t see outside their disciplinary frameworks. I was recently accused of “methodological ambiguity” by someone who clearly doesn’t understand engineering. Engineering and construction use whatever methods work in a variety of juxtapositions to put together a useful whole. It is not surprising that those of the social sciences would interpret this process as methodological ambiguity, having little familiarity with the engineering sciences. Bringing a combination of hard sciences and social sciences from nine basic fields of study allows one to see beyond the narrowness of specialties to the broader truths around them. My nine fields are math, wargaming, science, engineering, accounting, business, politics, peace economics, and global warming. Only this way leads to true paradigm shifts as certain frames test better than others. Point number 7 in the next list is crucial to understanding this point.
10 Scientific Revolution Facts
This is mainly a book review by Robert Reuschlein of:
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas Kuhn (1962, 1972)
#1. Kuhn defines a scientific revolution as a paradigm shift in a scientific field.
#2. Paradigm shifts change the worldview in a field of science. (Kuhn)
#3. Kuhn is a historian of science and works primarily in the physical sciences.
#4. Kuhn says a new theory “requires the reconstruction of prior theory and re-evaluation of prior fact, an intrinsically revolutionary process that is seldom completed by a single” person “and never overnight.”
#5. “History suggests that the road to a firm research consensus is very arduous.” (Kuhn)
#6. “it remains an open question what parts of social science have yet acquired such paradigms at all.” (Kuhn)
#7. “In the absence of a paradigm or some candidate for paradigm, all of the facts that could possibly pertain to the development of a given science are likely to seem equally relevant. As a result, early fact-gathering is a far more nearly random activity than the one that subsequent scientific development makes familiar.” (Kuhn)
#8 “Therefore, at times of revolution, when the normal-scientific tradition changes, the scientists perception of his environment must be re-educated – in some familiar situations he” or she “must learn to see a new gestalt.” (Kuhn)
#9 “schools guided by different paradigms are always slightly at cross-purposes.” (Kuhn)
#10 “what a person sees depends both on what a person looks at and also upon what a person’s previous visual-conceptual experience has taught him or her to see.” (Kuhn)
10 Truths About Research….
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